Today, the number of HIV-positive people grows day by day, raising serious concerns of the WHO and governments of different countries. Scientists have labeled HIV the disease of the twenty-first century, as its rapid extension threatens to take away millions of lives in a cacophony of terror. Countries elaborate measures to stop the disease spread, launching information campaigns and social advertising to combat HIV. However, these attempts so far have not had a pronounced effect. In this context, medical studies of treatment mechanisms and possibilities of HIV prevention become more and more relevant. The review of medical articles in this field helps shed light on innovative approaches to combat HIV and prevent its disastrous march across the globe. The articles chosen for this review are entitled “Ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic” by Eisinger and Fauci and “Antibodies and antibody derivatives: new partners in HIV eradication strategies” by Carrillo, Clotet, and Blanco. Briefly summing up the experience of HIV treatment humanity has had so far, they feature discoveries in this field that may be instrumental in bringing the HIV pandemic to an end.
The article “Ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic” is a scientific literature review that discusses prevention mechanisms of HIV and AIDS dissemination. Among the preventive measures most effective against HIV transmission, the authors name receiving ART by HIV-infected people and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) (Eisinger & Fauci). ART therapy clinical study “showed a 96% reduction in HIV transmission” from an infected partner to an uninfected person, thus making this therapy highly effective in combating HIV and AIDS dissemination (Eisinger & Fauci, 2018). Preexposure prophylaxis is medication taken by HIV-negative people from risk groups that effectively prevents transmitting a virus from the HIV-positive partner. The authors state that combining these methods could bring the HIV epidemic to an end, were there governmental and global incentives to do it (Eisinger & Fauci, 2018). However, the lack of governmental coordination at regional and global levels effectively prevents this from happening.
The strength of this article is in singling out the two most effective measures which would allow combating HIV dissemination. The authors have analyzed a large scope of medical, scientific literature, and their assertions are underpinned by serious studies in this field and are by no means far-fetched. Thus, Eisinger and Fauci’s findings pave the way for adopting these methods at all levels. However, there are no proposed steps as to how these measured should be adopted; nor to the change it is necessary to undertake in global medical practices to achieve that. The authors’ conclusion about people’s having all the needed instruments for combatting HIV and AIDS dissemination does not sound credible without thoroughly elaborated steps that governments need to undertake to put the epidemic to an end.
The article “Antibodies and antibody derivatives: new partners in HIV eradication strategies” by Carrillo, Clotet, and Blanco looks at an innovative method of HIV treatment called engineered monoclonal antibodies technology. Speaking about the adverse effects of ATM and asserting that life therapy leads to many chronic diseases, the authors name monoclonal antibodies promising in diminishing the spread of disease and at the same time improving HIV-positive people’s quality of life (Carrillo et al., 2018). Carrillo, Clotet, and Blanco hypostatize that treatment of HIV-positive patients with monoclonal antibodies would prolong their expected lifespan, diminish side effects of standard therapy, and can prospectively be applied to children suffering from HIV (2018). The methodological framework for the research embraces clinical trials on animals and people alike, though tests on people so far have been rather limited due to governmental regulations.
The clinical tests showed that in most patients, the introduction of antibodies and antibody derivatives led to a significant diminishing of HIV reservoirs. Moreover, treatment with antibodies in a long-time perspective “suggests beneficial immunomodulatory properties” (Carrillo et al., 2018). The authors state that “besides the potential role in cure intervention, [antibody derivatives] may be useful in preventative strategies”, protecting risk groups (Carrillo et al., 2018). The article concludes that further research should be made to see whether new treatment will work on all HIV-positive people; however, the intermediate results of antibodies technology are promising. The strength of the article is that it features a new approach to HIV treatment and relies on scientific data and clinical trials. The disadvantage is that these trials have not been numerous so far and do not allow to get the full picture of whether this new treatment would be effective.
Discussing relevant HIV treatment and prevention methods, both articles outline therapies that, today, are instrumental in putting an end to the HIV epidemic. Moreover, the articles show through which mechanisms this treatment works within a person’s body, thus making the research more credible and interesting for specialists. The most promising research areas in HIV treatment lie in the use of antibodies and developing global cooperation to give all people access to treatment with ART and preexposure prophylaxis. The problems raised in the articles are highly relevant, indicating further fields of research the authors inspire others to follow their way.
Carrillo, J., Clotet, B., & Blanco, J. (2018). Antibodies and antibody derivatives: new partners in HIV eradication strategies. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, 2429-2436. Web.
Eisinger, R. W., & Fauci, A. S. (2018). Ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(3), 413-420. Web.