Health Promotion Model and Its Application in Nursing Practice

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History of the Health Promotion Model

  • The model was developed by Nola Pender in 1982 (Khoshnood et al., 2020).
  • It was renovated and re-published in 1996 and 2002 (Khoshnood et al., 2020).
  • It was widely incorporated into nursing research and practice.
  • The model was created to be a “complementary counterpart to models of health protection” (Gonzalo, 2019, para. 20).
  • The information was collected through extensive observations and practice.

Key tenets of the theory

  • Health is a positive dynamic condition and not only the absence of diseases.
  • Health promotion aims to improve the general well-being of patients (Masters, 2018).
  • The model describes the interaction of people within their environment.
  • People continually pursue to improve their health.
  • Each individual has a certain experience that leads them to the subsequent decision-making.

Major assumptions

  • Individuals try to regulate and control their behavior.
  • Environment transforms individuals when they interact (Masters, 2018).
  • People transform their environment when they interact (Masters, 2018).
  • Health professionals influence a person throughout their lifespan.
  • Behavior change requires a spontaneous reconfiguration of interactive human-environment patterns.

Individual experiences as a key concept

  • It includes personal factors and prior behavioral patterns.
  • “Personal factors can be classified as biological, psychological, and socio-cultural” (Gonzalo, 2019, para. 28).
  • These factors predict a person’s conduct depending on its nature.
  • They include age, mass, race, ethnicity, self-esteem, and other related variables.
  • Individual experiences form people’s tendency to act differently to changes.

Behavior-specific knowledge (cognitions) and affect as a key concept

  • This concept is comprised of perceived barriers to action, benefits of action, activity-related affect, self-efficacy interpersonal and situational impacts.
  • These variables are responsible for performing any activity.
  • They focus on the ability or inability of one to execute a specific behavior.
  • Increased self-efficacy reduces barriers to action.
  • “Activity-related affect influences perceived self-efficacy, which means the more positive the subjective feeling, the greater the sense of efficacy” (Gonzalo, 2019, para. 35).

Behavioral outcomes as a key concept

  • This concept is composed of commitment to an action plan, immediate competing demands and preferences, and health-preserving behaviors.
  • A properly set intention leads to more conscious health related-choices.
  • The environment presents competing demands since it influences a person.
  • Individuals have control over competing preferences.
  • Health-preserving behaviors result in health fulfillment.

Application of the model in nursing practice

  • The model can be used to prevent diseases and health-related infections or injuries.
  • Nurses may consult clients to promote well-being.
  • It is used to explain the patients’ risk factors.
  • Nurses should plan for behavior modification with the aim of assisting in health improvement.
  • Nurses may prevent unhealthy behaviors.

General impact of the theory

  • The model has had an impact on increasing health awareness.
  • Hospitals started to educate staff on how to promote health-related behaviors.
  • Patients’ well-being underwent positive changes.
  • The value of a healthy lifestyle has become more significant.
  • The model impacted other nursing theories.

    9. Theory’s influence on evidence-based practice

  • Health Promotion Model has impacted workplace health promotion.
  • Workplace health promotion programs are financially and medically beneficial.
  • Nurses are becoming leaders in providing well-being promotion knowledge.
  • Increased disease prevention has been identified as a theory’s strength (Khoshnood et al., 2020).
  • It helped to investigate the major causes of specific diseases.

Recommendations for Health Promotion Model application

  • It is necessary to evaluate all health variables to develop proper interventions.
  • It is vital to consider various limitations.
  • A plan of action should be based upon the patient’s preferences.
  • A person can modify their own plan of action.
  • A nurse must focus on both health promotion and disease prevention.


Gonzalo, A. (2019). Nola Pender: Health Promotion Model. Nurselab. Web.

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Khoshnood, Z., Rayyani, M., & Tirgari, B. (2020). Theory analysis for Pender’s health promotion model (HPM) by Barnum’s criteria: A critical perspective. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 32(4). Web.

Masters, K. (2018). Role development professional nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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NursingBird. (2022, June 29). Health Promotion Model and Its Application in Nursing Practice. Retrieved from


NursingBird. (2022, June 29). Health Promotion Model and Its Application in Nursing Practice.

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"Health Promotion Model and Its Application in Nursing Practice." NursingBird, 29 June 2022,


NursingBird. (2022) 'Health Promotion Model and Its Application in Nursing Practice'. 29 June.


NursingBird. 2022. "Health Promotion Model and Its Application in Nursing Practice." June 29, 2022.

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NursingBird. "Health Promotion Model and Its Application in Nursing Practice." June 29, 2022.