History of the Health Promotion Model
- The model was developed by Nola Pender in 1982 (Khoshnood et al., 2020).
- It was renovated and re-published in 1996 and 2002 (Khoshnood et al., 2020).
- It was widely incorporated into nursing research and practice.
- The model was created to be a “complementary counterpart to models of health protection” (Gonzalo, 2019, para. 20).
- The information was collected through extensive observations and practice.
Key tenets of the theory
- Health is a positive dynamic condition and not only the absence of diseases.
- Health promotion aims to improve the general well-being of patients (Masters, 2018).
- The model describes the interaction of people within their environment.
- People continually pursue to improve their health.
- Each individual has a certain experience that leads them to the subsequent decision-making.
- Individuals try to regulate and control their behavior.
- Environment transforms individuals when they interact (Masters, 2018).
- People transform their environment when they interact (Masters, 2018).
- Health professionals influence a person throughout their lifespan.
- Behavior change requires a spontaneous reconfiguration of interactive human-environment patterns.
Individual experiences as a key concept
- It includes personal factors and prior behavioral patterns.
- “Personal factors can be classified as biological, psychological, and socio-cultural” (Gonzalo, 2019, para. 28).
- These factors predict a person’s conduct depending on its nature.
- They include age, mass, race, ethnicity, self-esteem, and other related variables.
- Individual experiences form people’s tendency to act differently to changes.
Behavior-specific knowledge (cognitions) and affect as a key concept
- This concept is comprised of perceived barriers to action, benefits of action, activity-related affect, self-efficacy interpersonal and situational impacts.
- These variables are responsible for performing any activity.
- They focus on the ability or inability of one to execute a specific behavior.
- Increased self-efficacy reduces barriers to action.
- “Activity-related affect influences perceived self-efficacy, which means the more positive the subjective feeling, the greater the sense of efficacy” (Gonzalo, 2019, para. 35).
Behavioral outcomes as a key concept
- This concept is composed of commitment to an action plan, immediate competing demands and preferences, and health-preserving behaviors.
- A properly set intention leads to more conscious health related-choices.
- The environment presents competing demands since it influences a person.
- Individuals have control over competing preferences.
- Health-preserving behaviors result in health fulfillment.
Application of the model in nursing practice
- The model can be used to prevent diseases and health-related infections or injuries.
- Nurses may consult clients to promote well-being.
- It is used to explain the patients’ risk factors.
- Nurses should plan for behavior modification with the aim of assisting in health improvement.
- Nurses may prevent unhealthy behaviors.
General impact of the theory
- The model has had an impact on increasing health awareness.
- Hospitals started to educate staff on how to promote health-related behaviors.
- Patients’ well-being underwent positive changes.
- The value of a healthy lifestyle has become more significant.
- The model impacted other nursing theories.
9. Theory’s influence on evidence-based practice
- Health Promotion Model has impacted workplace health promotion.
- Workplace health promotion programs are financially and medically beneficial.
- Nurses are becoming leaders in providing well-being promotion knowledge.
- Increased disease prevention has been identified as a theory’s strength (Khoshnood et al., 2020).
- It helped to investigate the major causes of specific diseases.
Recommendations for Health Promotion Model application
- It is necessary to evaluate all health variables to develop proper interventions.
- It is vital to consider various limitations.
- A plan of action should be based upon the patient’s preferences.
- A person can modify their own plan of action.
- A nurse must focus on both health promotion and disease prevention.
Gonzalo, A. (2019). Nola Pender: Health Promotion Model. Nurselab. Web.
Khoshnood, Z., Rayyani, M., & Tirgari, B. (2020). Theory analysis for Pender’s health promotion model (HPM) by Barnum’s criteria: A critical perspective. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 32(4). Web.
Masters, K. (2018). Role development professional nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.