Health Promotion and Risk Reduction: Chronic Disease


Creating the environment in which the target population will be exposed to the influence of positive factors and shielded from negative ones is a crucial step toward improving patient outcomes and increasing health rates among the members of a community (World Health Organization, 2017). Herein lies the significance of the practices associated with health promotion and reduction of the associated risks (Liu et al., 2016).

It should be noted, though, that the application of the corresponding strategies is different in meeting the needs of patients with chronic diseases and those that do not have health concerns (i.e., healthy population). While general audiences need basic guidelines concerning healthy dieting, physical activities, and the instructions about locating the relevant information, people with chronic diseases require detailed instructions about their specific health issue, the factors that enhance or inhibit its development, the means of identifying the key symptoms and searching for healthcare assistance, etc.

Health Promotion: Comparison

When promoting health to the population that does not have evident complications and, therefore, is considered healthy, one should focus on making people follow the traditional diet that includes the necessary amount of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (O’Sullivan, Kuziemsky, Toal-Sullivan, &Corneil, 2013). In addition, exercises are viewed as a crucial element of health promotion programs since many people are prone to sedentary lifestyle because of active use of social networks and other IT tools as substitutes for live communication (Chastin, Palarea-Albaladejo, Dontje, & Skelton, 2015). Thus, the guidelines are non-specific.

The process of health promotion among people with chronic illnesses, in turn, is more complicated since it pursues several goals. Apart from providing similar guidelines regarding a healthy diet and exercises, the relevant programs also incorporate the information that allows preventing the exacerbation of the health issue in question and the increase in death rates. Furthermore, the available strategies for the treatment of the chronic illness are listed in the resources that the health promotion programs for people with chronic diseases offer (Kivela, Elo, Kyngas, & Kaariainen, 2014).

Risk Management: Comparison

In the same way, the strategies aimed at reducing the risks to which patients are exposed are different among people with chronic diseases and healthy members of the population. Particularly, regular checks and visits to the therapist are encouraged among both groups. However, it is also crucial for patients with chronic diseases to pay special attention to the factors that may trigger a rapid exacerbation of their health problem.

For instance, for patients with asthma, it is strongly recommended that the so-called asthma triggers (e.g., pollen) should be avoided at all costs, whereas, for healthy patients, there are no similar guidelines (National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute, 2014). Therefore, the healthcare programs aimed at meeting the needs of patients with chronic disorders focus on the factors that trigger the exacerbation of the target population’s health. Furthermore, specific measures that are supposed to increase the patients’ awareness levels regarding their health problems are included in the programs.


In contrast to general audiences that require only basic information about health promotion and the prevention of general risks, people with chronic illnesses also require specific guidelines that are linked to their health problems, particularly, the information that allows for accurate identification of symptoms and the prevention of possible exacerbation of the disease. Therefore, it is crucial that the target population should be provided with the relevant information, as well as the tools for contacting the corresponding healthcare services.

Furthermore, a significant emphasis must be placed on the use of innovative technologies as the means of promoting a connection between patients with chronic diseases and nurses. By creating the environment in which the target population is provided with extensive information and a certain amount of autonomy, one is expected to improve the healthcare outcomes significantly.


Chastin, S. F. M., Palarea-Albaladejo, J., Dontje, M. L., & Skelton, D. A. (2015). Combined effects of time spent in physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers: A novel compositional data analysis approach. PloS One, 10(10), e0139984.

Kivela, K., Elo, S., Kyngas, H., & Kaariainen, M. (2014). The effects of health coaching on adult patients with chronic diseases: A systematic review. Patient Education and Counseling, 97(2), 147-157.

Liu, Y., Croft, J. B., Wheaton, A. G., Kanny, D., Cunningham, T. J., Lu, H.,… Giles, W. H. (2016). Clustering of Five health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention among adults, United States, 2013. Preventing Chronic Disease, 13(70), 1-11.

National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute. (2014). How is asthma treated and controlled? Web.

O’Sullivan, T. L., Kuziemsky, C. E., Toal-Sullivan, D., &Corneil, W. (2013). Unraveling the complexities of disaster management: A framework for critical social infrastructure to promote population health and resilience. Social Science & Medicine, 93(1), 238-246.

World Health Organization. (2017). Chronic diseases and health promotion. Web.