Asthma and Hypertension Pathogenesis

Hypertension

In developed countries, life expectancy continues to increase, amounting up to 80 in particular regions, and so does increase the share of the population suffering from age-related diseases. Hypertension is a health condition that is prevalent among older demographic cohorts. Hypertension has several health risks, and while previously, the conversation about the issue primarily focused on cardiovascular effects, nowadays, collateral damages draw more attention from researchers. This paper will discuss risk factors, symptoms, and treatment of hypertension.

Hypertension is otherwise known as high blood pressure (HBP), and usually, HBP is diagnosed when blood pressure readings consistently display 140 over 90 and higher. Some patients show no signs or symptoms of HBP, and the condition may go unnoticed for years. Others, however, may be fairly precise in their observations and aware of the issue. In such patients, the symptoms usually include a severe headache, chest pain, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.

There are some predisposing factors for developing hypertension. First, the likelihood of heightened blood pressure increases with age since blood vessels tend to lose elasticity with time (Buford, 2016). Further, it is reasonable to examine a patient’s family history for the probability of hypertension may be calculated based on the presence of the condition in close blood relatives. Among modifiable risk factors are a sedentary lifestyle, an unbalanced diet high in sodium, diabetes, high cholesterol, and alcohol abuse.

It is imperative to address the issue promptly since when untreated, hypertension may lead to other cardiovascular diseases and in some cases, to dementia and physical disability. Effective treatment for a person with HBP needs to include both lifestyle changes and appropriate medication. Among frequently prescribed drugs are beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Patients should consider changing their dietary habits and doing sports to make treatment more sustainable.

Asthma

Asthma is a chronic condition that affects airways and results in difficulty breathing. In the United States of America, bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children with the prevalence rate ranging from 6% to 9%. In the adult population, the share of those who are affected by this disease amounts to 7,5%. This paper will discuss symptoms, risk factors, and treatment of asthma.

In patients with asthma, the condition causes the inflammation of air passages that is followed by the significant narrowing of airways. As a result, oxygen cannot be carried directly to the lungs, and a person with this condition experiences coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and tightness in the chest area. Early symptoms before the final onset of the condition include a frequent cough at night, shortness of breath during mild physical activities, and fatigue.

Some recent studies in children and adults have shown that asthma is highly predictable, and the likelihood of developing this condition depends on some modifiable factors. However, those factors may be overlapping and difficult to define. For instance, among the characteristics to be taken into consideration are environmental conditions, genetic predisposition, and comorbidities. So far, there has been found an association between asthma and premature birth, maternal smoking, sedentary lifestyle, exposure to the respiratory syncytial virus, and many others (Beasley, Semprini, & Mitchell, 2015).

Asthma can and should be managed since when untreated, each attack may be life-threatening or even fatal. Long-term control strategies aim at preventing attacks or stopping one before it is full-fledged. Inhalers prescribed by a medical professional provide quick relief. However, a more sustainable approach is defining and recognizing triggers and avoiding them which may include changing living conditions to make them safer and accommodating.

Reference

Beasley, R., Semprini, A., & Mitchell, E. A. (2015). Risk factors for asthma: Is prevention possible? The Lancet, 386(9998), 1075-1085.

Buford, T. W. (2016). Hypertension and aging. Ageing Research Reviews, 26, 96-111.