If the amount of hemoglobin is insufficient, the body’s muscles and tissues will not work effectively due to a lack of oxygen.
- Unusual Tiredness: energy deprivation as less oxygen reaches muscles and tissues without enough hemoglobin;
- Shortness of Breath: increased breathing rate when the body tries to receive more oxygen;
- Rapid or Irregular Heartbeat: the heart starts to pump more blood to cover a lack of oxygen in it (“Iron deficiency anemia. Symptoms & causes,” 2019);
- Headaches and a Lack of Concentration: poor brain functioning caused by a lack of oxygen;
- Hair Loss, Brittle Nails, Dry Skin: oxygen deficiency caused by a lack of iron;
- Paleness: a lack of hemoglobin that provides the blood-red color.
Diagnostics of Anemia
Information about the patient’s family and medical history. Physical examination by a health care provider. A complete blood count (CBC) test to measure hemoglobin and hematocrit (“Anemia Diagnosis & treatment,” 2019). Other tests to determine ferritin, red blood cells’ size and shape, unusual and immature red blood cells, and white blood cells.
No single test may be regarded as a diagnosis of iron deficiency unless the percentage of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin is low with an elevated total iron-binding capacity (Auerbach & Adamson, 2016).
Treatment of Anemia
- Low-to-moderate doses of oral iron supplementation (with vitamin C and not along with antacids);
- Short-term IV iron administration (Muñoz et al., 2018);
- Specific diet that implies the consumption of iron-rich foods.
Iron deficiency anemia is a highly common condition that is characterized by an insufficient level of mineral iron in the body. A lack of oxygen affects organs, tissues, and muscles. They do not work efficiently. Signs and symptoms include unusual tiredness, shortness of breath, irregular or rapid heartbeat, headaches and a lack of concentration, hair loss, and paleness. Nurse practitioners are responsible for diagnosis, intervention, control, and prevention.
The diagnosis includes a physical examination, data collection, and particular tests that are required to measure hemoglobin and hematocrit and determine ferritin, red blood cells’ size and shape, unusual and immature red blood cells, and white blood cells. The treatment of anemia traditionally includes pharmacological (iron supplementation) and non-pharmacological interventions (iron-rich diet).
Anemia. Diagnosis & treatment. (2019). Web.
Auerbach, M., & Adamson, J. W. (2016). How we diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia. American Journal of Hematology, 91(1), 31-38. Web.
Iron deficiency anemia. Symptoms & causes. (2019). Web.
Muñoz, M., Gómez-Ramírez, S., & Bhandari, S. (2018). The safety of available treatment options for iron-deficiency anemia. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 17(2), 149-159. Web.