African American Pediatric Patients with Asthma

Introduction

Asthma is a chronic disease that can manifest itself in an acute form and cause significant discomfort. Respiratory problems resulting from the illness may be fatal if measures are not taken and symptoms are ignored. At an early age, asthma affects children disproportionately, but its outcomes may be dangerous. According to Agusala, Vij, Agusala, Dasari, and Kola (2018), in 2015, 6 188 000 children were affected (p. 3173). In particular, this problem is relevant to African countries where an insufficiently high level of healthcare does not allow for effective preventive activities, thereby affecting high readmission rates. This work aims to describe the benefits achieved through the additional training of medical providers regarding asthma control, the implementation of an intervention plan, and the outcomes of a corresponding strategy introduction.

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The Spirit of Inquiry Ignited

The lack of proper asthma control in African countries is a significant incentive to carry out the necessary research with the implementation of an action plan. As Burbank et al. (2018) argue, local children, suffer from this disease 2-3 times more often than their Caucasoid peers (p. 1). Therefore, a practical solution to the problem is the only possible way to address this health issue among the target audience.

The PICOT Question Formulated

In pediatric patients with asthma (P), does teaching caregivers and health providers asthma control (I) as opposed to just treating the patient (C) decrease hospital readmission rates (O) over a period of 3 months (T)?

Search Strategy Concluded

As the main archive for finding relevant sources for this research, the PubMed database was used, and such keywords were utilized as “asthma,” “control,” “pediatric,” and “readmission.” Agusala et al. (2018) focus on parental education techniques to improve the outcomes of pediatric asthma interventions. In the study by Burbank et al. (2018), the African race is seen as one of the determinants of asthma testing. Kashaninia, Payrovee, Soltani, and Mahdaviani (2018) pay attention to the role of parents in addressing early childhood asthma. Rangachari et al. (2015) consider the levels of interaction of medical providers with pediatric asthmatic patients and analyze the readmission rate. Finally, Yawn et al. (2018) evaluate the significance of the Asthma APGAR mechanism in the context of early childhood care. All the studies used correspond to the chosen topic and meet the evidence-based research standards.

Critical Appraisal of the Evidence Performed

As tools to justify the validity of the selected sources, and evidence synthesis table and an evaluation table were compiled. Of the 5 articles, 3 have Level II evidence, and 2 have Level 3 evidence. The goal of the evidence-based practice change was achieved through a comprehensive assessment of the available methods and the involvement of relevant stakeholders.

Evidence Integrated with Clinical Expertise and Patient Preferences to Implement the Best Practice

The stated plan consists of daily 30-minute lessons for medical providers to replenish their knowledge regarding the principles of asthma control in pediatric patients. Also, the involvement of parents may have positive results, and a special presentation will give them an opportunity to assess their role in the context of helping children. Evaluating the effectiveness of the program will be carried out based on the outcomes of interventions, in particular, the readmission rate within 3 months after the plan implementation.

The outcome of Practice Change Evaluated

Group medical provider training should help determine if special asthma control education is productive in addressing the needs of pediatric patients. Each of the stakeholders involved should be able to answer proposed questions regarding the principles of interventions and preventive measures. Also, parents may share their ideas and concerns with physicians to receive valuable recommendations and understand the importance of following a specific set of procedures when interacting with sick children.

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Evaluation Plan

Purpose

The purpose of this assessment is to find out whether specific interventions aimed at educating medical providers and parents may help reduce readmission rates among pediatric asthma patients, in particular, African-American children. This approach based on racial differences testifies to the health disparities that exist today. Compiling an evaluation plan is a valuable methodology for substantiating a particular intervention.

Clinical Question

Can daily 30-minute lessons with medical providers and parents contribute to reducing readmission rates among pediatric asthma patients?

Time

Since asthma is a chronic disease, patient care requires constant monitoring. In order for the implemented program of assistance to pediatric patients to be effective, at least 3 months are necessary to test the success of the intervention. During this period, appropriate educational activities, along with treatment, will be conducted.

Stakeholders

The main stakeholders involved in the care program are medical staff, including nurses and physicians. One supervisor is required for reporting, and several employees should be responsible for the equipment used during educational sessions. Also, parents of asthma patients should be engaged because their role in improving children’s health outcomes is significant.

Methods

Theoretical Framework

As a theoretical framework, interactive asthma education, along with a family empowerment program, will be utilized. This technique implies a 3-month training of medical personnel with periodic testing and the consolidation of acquired knowledge and skills. Improving staff professional attainments is the main goal of this program.

Design

An exploratory gathering and control gathering will be the basis of the educational sessions. The proposed material will be discussed, and the principle of sampling will be applied. The intermediate results of the assessment will make it possible to understand how effectively the target group of participants adopts the necessary information.

Confidentiality

Each of the program members will receive a written confirmation that the identities of the participants will not be disclosed. Also, parents of asthma children can rely on anonymity and an open mind. Any violation of confidentiality and the intentional disclosure of the outcomes of the program before its completion will be fraught with disciplinary actions.

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Sample/Setting/Procedure

A group of medical employees involved in work with pediatric asthma children will be engaged, along with parents willing to participate. Classes will be held in an individual hospital room with all necessary equipment. Educational materials will be offered both in a digital format and in the form of oral lectures and explanations.

Instrument

Asthma education tools may include interactive programs for the training and testing of medical providers. Also, special handouts for working with pediatric patients can be helpful. For parents, videos will be prepared, and additional educational materials will be prepared.

Data Analysis

Outcomes to Be Evaluated

The most important results that need to be evaluated are the readmission rate and the quality of life of pediatric asthma patients. Information from stakeholders will be analyzed and interpreted by comparing the outcomes before and after the intervention. Also, related quantitative ratios, in particular, the level of providers’ and parents’ knowledge of, will be assessed.

Project Dissemination

The outcomes of the intervention may be disseminated by publishing the program plan in academic journals. Also, results can be mentioned at conferences dedicated to preventive practices for pediatric asthma. The results of the practice change work may be shared with local healthcare facilities.

Conclusion

Special educational sessions for medical persons and parents can be effective in increasing knowledge regarding pediatric asthma control and reducing readmission rates. The presented change plan has enough evidence to implement it in a real clinical environment. The training includes the phases of discussion and subsequent control. Involving stakeholders and disseminating the results of the work done are the significant aspects of the intervention conducted.

References

Agusala, A., Vij, P., Agusala, V., Dasari, V., & Kola, B. (2018). Can interactive parental education impact health care utilization in pediatric asthma: A study in rural Texas. Journal of International Medical Research, 46(8), 3172-3182.

Burbank, A. J., Todoric, K., Steele, P., Rosen, J., Zhou, H., Frye, M., … Hernandez, M. L. (2018). Age and African-American race impact the validity and reliability of the asthma control test in persistent asthmatics. Respiratory Research, 19(152), 1-9.

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Kashaninia, Z., Payrovee, Z., Soltani, R., & Mahdaviani, S. A. (2018). Effect of family empowerment on asthma control in school-age children. Tanaffos, 17(1), 47-52.

Rangachari, P., Mehta, R., Rethemeyer, R. K., Ferrang, C., Dennis, C., & Redd, V. (2015). Short or long end of the lever? Associations between provider communication of the “asthma-action plan” and outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma. Journal of Hospital Administration, 4(5), 26-39.

Yawn, B. P., Wollan, P. C., Rank, M. A., Bertram, S. L., Juhn, Y., & Pace, W. (2018). Use of asthma APGAR tools in primary care practices: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Annals of Family Medicine, 16(2), 100-110.

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