Nursing homes provide alternative supportive care to patients who do not need to be in other healthcare institutions. The facilities have qualified nurses and operate according to the nursing and healthcare standards. Additionally, they have a very high patient population because of the rising cost of hospitalization. However, the facilities have been experiencing an increase in several types of infections. The following study evaluates research findings on the causes, prevalence, and management of urinary tract infections in nursing homes.
What are the best management strategies (I) that can be derived from other care facilities (C) to prevent urinary tract infections (O) among elderly patients in nursing homes (P)?
Selection of Materials
The research by Calson, Haglin, Rosendahl, and Gustafson (2013), focuses on the poor nutritional status in nursing care patients and the influence of the conditions to urinary tract infections. The study’s statistics reported that fifteen percent of 188 participants were already malnourished while sixty-six percent, were at risk of malnourishment. The malnourished population was found to be at risk of urinary tract infections (UTI). The study shows that most of the at-risk populations had lower mini nutritional assessment scores. The research supports the proposed change because it identifies some of the causes of urinary tract infections.
Ping, Traynor, and Hailey (2014) conducted a research that concentrated on the urinary continence (UC) in Australian nursing homes. The statistics showed that seventy-seven percent of 121 staff engaged in the study was compliant with the UC standards. The rate of UC use had a direct effect on the reduction of urinary tract infections. The study shows that among over 180,000 elderly patients, sixty-eight percent required UC care. The article is essential in demonstrating the effectiveness of UC in managing urinary tract infections.
Gaal et al. (2014) conducted a research to investigate the concurrent incidences of adverse effects in hospitals and nursing homes. The statistical findings showed that eleven percent hospital patients and forty-six percent of nursing home patients developed adverse effects. The rate of occurrence showed that nursing homes were at risk of infections compared to other care facilities. The study is useful in demonstrating the contribution of nursing homes to urinary tract infections.
Kihlgren, Wimo, and Mamhidir (2014) conducted a research on the influence of nursing homes in preventing the use of emergency departments to treat patients. The statistical results showed that over twenty percent of nursing care patients was at higher risks of being admitted to the emergency departments. The research samples concentrated on emergency care and nursing practice in addressing elderly care infections. The study is essential in providing theories on the preventive strategies applied by care facilities against urinary tract infections.
The research by Agata, Loeb and Mitchell (2013), focuses on the prevalence of urinary tract infections among patients diagnosed with dementia. The statistics showed that 44.3 percent were experiencing mental change status, 20.6 percent had a fever, and 6.9 percent had hematuria. The prevalence rate was that seventy-two patients with dementia experienced 131 episodes of UTI. The article is essential in determining the relationship between dementia and UTI.
The study by Zorman, Lusa, Strle, and Maraspin (2013), focused on the rate of bacterial infection among patients in nursing homes and the community-based patients. The statistics showed that the nursing homes had a 23.3 percent fatality rate against 10.9 percent in community care centers. Additionally, nursing homes had a 27.5 percent of functional decline against a 16.8 percent rate in community-based centers. The prevalence rate was at two hundred and sixty-two patients having bacterial infections in the nursing homes. The study is important in enhancing the theoretical explanations for high infection rates in nursing homes.
Shang, Ma, Poghosyan, Dowding and Stone (2014), conducted a study to evaluate the infection prevalence and risk factors among adult patients in nursing homes. In the study findings, most of the reviewed literature correlated with the research hypothesis that predicted high prevalence rates of infections in the facilities. The research is essential in developing the theoretical frameworks during the study.
Jingjing, Elaine, Jianfang and Patricia (2015), evaluated the national outcomes for infection rates in home care centers (HCC). The statistics showed that 3.5 percent of patients in the home care centers developed infections while seventeen percent were involved in unplanned hospitalization. The prevalence rate was at 0-34 percent in the HCC. The study is essential in demonstrating the correlation between nursing home care and rate of infection among elderly patients.
Chang et al. (2014) conducted a study on the influence of lymphopenia and poor performance status in developing infections among residents of care facilities. The statics showed that the majority of the residents developed infections after a prolonged stay in the care centers. The prevalence rate was high among elderly residents compared to young patients. The study is essential in the analysis of infections in nursing homes.
Wysocki et al. (2014) conducted a study to investigate the relationship between long-term care setting and preventable hospitalization among elderly patients. Inverse probability was used to map out the treatment patterns of the study group. The study found that some of the common hospitalization causes were urinary tract infections and congestive heart failure. The study is essential to understanding some of the infections that are common in nursing homes.
Flanagan et al. (2014), investigated factors with incontinence among elderly patients in home care facilities. The statistics showed a significant relationship between nursing home centers and background incontinence. A high prevalence rate was recorded among the study population. The article provides essential information on incontinences and rates of infection among elderly patients.
Figueiredo (2014) analyzed the challenges in preventing infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD) programs. The research reported that a twelve percent increase in procedural failures and clinical errors increased the risks of infection. Additionally, elderly patients were at a higher risk of infection compared to other patients. The study is essential in identifying the appropriate treatments and prevention strategies for infection in PD.
Hyang, Blegen and Harrington (2014) focused on the effects of staffing hours the quality of care in nursing homes. Square regression techniques were used to assess the implications. The results showed a high prevalence rate of infections in the care centers with short staffing hours. The study is essential in identifying the influence of staffing hours in the quality of care.
Teramura-Grönblad, Hosia-Randell, Muurinen and Pitkala (2010) investigated the influence of proton-pump inhibitors in the prevalence rate of infections among frail elderly patients. Most of the patients using the inhibitors were at a higher risk of infections compared to those using other technologies. The research is essential in evaluating the significance of nursing home techniques in preventing or increase infection rates.
Trinkoff et al. (2015) focused on the benefits of leadership skills in enhancing the care quality of nursing homes. A cross-sectional secondary data analysis was conducted. The findings showed that leadership skills improved the quality of care. The study is essential when designing infection preventive measures in nursing homes.
Agata, E. D., Loeb, M. B., & Mitchell, S. L. (2013). Challenges in Assessing Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia for Suspected Urinary Tract Infections. Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society, 61(1), 62-66.
Carlsson, M., Haglin, L., Rosendahl, E., & Gustafson, Y. (2013). Poor nutritional status is associated with urinary tract infection among older people living in residential care facilities. Journal Of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 17(2), 186-191.
Chang, C., Chen, L., Liu, L., Lin, M., Peng, L., & Chen, L. (2014). Lymphopenia and poor performance status as major predictors of infections among residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs): A prospective cohort study. Archives Of Gerontology & Geriatrics, 58(3), 440-44.
Figueiredo, A. E. (2014). The challenges in preventing infection in peritoneal dialysis: a nurse’s viewpoint. Renal Society Of Australasia Journal, 10(3), 120-125.
Flanagan, L., Roe, B., Jack, B., Shaw, C., Williams, K. S., Chung, A., & Barrett, J. (2014). Factors with the management of incontinence and promotion of continence in older people in care homes. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 70(3), 476-496.
Gaal, B. G., Schoonhoven, L., Mintjes-de Groot, J. A., Defloor, T., Habets, H., Voss, A., &… Koopmans, R. T. (2014). Concurrent Incidence of Adverse Events in Hospitals and Nursing Homes. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship, 46(3), 187-198.
Hyang, L., Blegen, M. A., & Harrington, C. (2014). The effects of RN staffing hours on nursing home quality: A two-stage model. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 51(3), 409-417.
Kihlgren, A., Wimo, A., & Mamhidir, A. (2014). Older patients referred by community nurses to emergency departments – a descriptive cross-sectional follow-up study in a Swedish context. Scandinavian Journal Of Caring Sciences, 28(1), 97-103.
Ping, Y., Traynor, V., & Hailey, D. (2014). Urinary continence care in Australian nursing homes. Australian Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 32(2), 39-46.
Shang, J., Ma, C., Poghosyan, L., Dowding, D., & Stone, P. (2014). Major article: The prevalence of infections and patient risk factors in home health care: A systematic review. AJIC: American Journal Of Infection Control, 42479-484
Teramura-Grönblad, M., Hosia-Randell, H., Muurinen, S., & Pitkala, K. (2010). Use of proton-pump inhibitors and their associated risks among frail elderly nursing home residents. Scandinavian Journal Of Primary Health Care, 28(3), 154-159.
Trinkoff, A. M., Lerner, N. B., Storr, C. L., Han, K., Johantgen, M. E., & Gartrell, K. (2015). Leadership education, certification and resident outcomes in US nursing homes: Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. International journal of nursing studies, 52(1), 334-344.
Trinkoff, A. M., Lerner, N. B., Storr, C. L., Han, K., Johantgen, M. E., & Gartrell, K. (2015). Leadership education, certification and resident outcomes in US nursing homes: Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 52334-344.
Wysocki, A., Kane, R. L., Golberstein, E., Dowd, B., Lum, T., & Shippee, T. (2014). The Association between Long-Term Care Setting and Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations among Older Dual Eligibles. Health Services Research, 49(3), 778-797.
Zorman, J., Lusa, L., Strle, F., & Maraspin, V. (2013). Bacterial infection in elderly nursing home and community-based patients: a prospective cohort study. Infection, 41(5), 909-916.