The urinary system helps the body to get rid of liquid waste. Besides, a urinary and kidney system help to keep the balance between potassium, sodium, and other chemicals and water. Extra water and liquid waste are removed from the body with urine. Urine is produced as a result of breaking down the protein in the organism. The kidney and urinary system also help to control the acid-base balance and to conserve fluids. Thus, the urinary and kidney system removes water and liquid waste from the body and controls the balance of chemicals.
Functions and Parts of Kidney and Urinary System
The Urinary and kidney system includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, two sphincter muscles, the urethra, and nerves in the bladder. According to the University of Rochester Medical Center (n.d.), kidneys are two brown organs located below the ribs towards the middle of the back. They filter the urea, removing it from the blood through nephrons, small filtering units. A nephron is formed from the glomerulus, which is a ball of blood capillaries, and a renal tubule, which is a small tube. Urine consists of urea mixed with a range of substances and water. Urine is mixed with water when it goes down the kidney renal tubules through the nephrons.
The Main Functions of Kidney System
There are five main functions of the kidney and urinary system. First, the system removes liquid waste and water from the body. Besides, it helps to keep the balance of fluids in the organism and to balance electrolytes. Besides, it releases hormones in order to control blood pressure. The fourth function is releasing the hormones in order to control the production of red blood cells (University of Rochester Medical Center, n.d.). Finally, the urinary system fosters bone health, as it controls the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.
The kidney system includes two ureters, which are narrow tubes that carry urine to the bladder. Ureter muscles relax and tighten, which makes the urine move from the kidneys downward. If the urine stands still or backs up, it can be the reason for a urinary infection (University of Rochester Medical Center, n.d.). Ureters are built from smooth muscle tissue that allows them to narrow and pass from the pelvis of kidneys to the bladder.
Two sphincter muscles prevent leakages of urine by closing tightly around the bladder like a ribbon. In females, the external end of the sphincter is located in the bladder’s distal inferior end. In males, it is located next to the prostate, is situated at the level of the membranous urethra (University of Rochester Medical Center, n.d.). Both in males and females, another end of the sphincter muscle is located in the deep perineal pouch.
The urethra allows the urine to leak out from the body. The urine passes from the organism due to the brain signal that forces the sphincter muscles to tighten. The urine squeezes out of the bladder, and the sphincter muscles let the urine out of the bladder through the urethra (University of Rochester Medical Center, n.d.). When the signal is received correctly, normal urination happens.
How to Keep the Urinary System Healthy
There are several recommendations that can help to prevent urinary infections. According to the National Institute on Aging (2017), drinking enough water, limiting caffeine and alcohol, and regular exercises can be useful for the urinary system. Besides, it is recommended to quit smoking and to use bath often. Wiping after the toilet should be done from front to the back, as it reduces the risk of bacteria invasion.
The urinary system includes kidneys, sphincter muscles, bladder, ureters, and urethra. Urinary and kidney system has a number of important functions that allow the organism to get rid of extra water and other substances, such as medicals. Urination helps to keep potassium and calcium balance and to control blood pressure. It also allows releasing hormones to control red blood cells. Thus, the urinary system is essential for the normal functioning of the body.
University of Rochester Medical Center (n.d.). Anatomy and function of the urinary system. Health Encyclopedia. Web.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2017). 13 Tips to keep your bladder healthy. National Institute on Aging. Web.