Three Main Components of the Brain

The brain can be considered to have three main components-cerebrum, cerebellum, and the brain stem, each having unique functions.

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The cerebrum is the biggest and most advanced part of the brain (Internet stroke center, n.d). The functions of the cerebrum include: speech, sensory stimuli integration, emotion, higher intellect, and control of fine movements.

After the cerebrum, the cerebellum is the next largest area of the brain. The functions of the cerebellum include: balance control, and control of movement and coordination. The function of the brain stem includes: control of heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, state of wakefulness, arousal, and attention.

The cerebrum is divided into two halves, the right and left hemisphere, which in turn is composed of frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The left cerebral hemisphere controls most functions of the body’s right side whereas the right cerebral hemisphere controls most functions of the body’s left side.

cerebral hemisphere produces motor and sensory deficits on the right side of the body, whereas any injury to the right cerebral hemisphere produces sensory and motor deficits on the left side.

The dominant area in one cerebral hemisphere is slightly more developed and it in this area that written and spoken language is organized (Internet stroke center, n.d).

The right side of the brain is the more creative and artistic part of the brain while the left side of the brain is the more logical part of the brain.

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Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or hemorrhagic stroke makes up for 10-15% of all strokes. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke present with focal neurologic deficits. The clinical findings seen depend on which side of the brain is damaged.

In case the dominant hemisphere (usually left) is affected, the clinical findings include: right hemiparesis, right hemisensory loss, left gaze preference, aphasia, and right visual field loss. There might also be difficulty in chewing and swallowing.

In case the nondominant (usually right) hemisphere is affected, the clinical findings include: left hemiparesis, left hemisensory loss, right gaze preference, and left visual field loss. Nondominant hemisphere syndrome also results in a condition called neglect, wherein the patient has left-sided hemi-inattention and ignores the left side of the body (Nassisi, 2008).

References

Internet stroke center (n.d). Anatomy of the brain. 2008. Web.

Nassisi, D (2008). Stroke, Hemorrhagic. Web.

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