The Healthy People 2020 initiative has the aim of improving the health of Americans by providing national health objectives and benchmarks. This initiative also targets to improve the health of the population through input from different sectors (About Healthy People, 2015). The objectives, goals and indicators in the healthy people 2020 initiative work towards improving the health of the population. The city of Miami, Florida has available surveillance data on communicable diseases. This essay analyzes botulism, pertussis, and mumps as the three population-based communicable illnesses
Objectives Goals and Indicators
The goals of Healthy People 2020 include improved health and quality of life for the population. In addition, the initiative aims to achieve health equity and reduce the existing health disparities (About Healthy People, 2015). Additionally, the initiative aimed to promote the creation of social and physical environments promoting health for all individuals (About Healthy People, 2015). The other goal of this initiative is the promotion of improved quality of life, healthy behaviors and development (About Healthy People, 2015).
There are different indicators in the Healthy People Initiative 2020. These are measured to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and the changes that are anticipated. Besides, the indicators are categorized into groups such as leading health indicators (Mitruka et al., 2012). The main leading health indicators include the access to health services, clinical preventive services, environmental quality, injury and violence, mental health, reproductive and sexual health, maternal, infant, and child health (About Healthy People, 2015).
Epidemiological and Surveillance Data
The State of Florida has adequate epidemiological data on communicable diseases in the population. This data is useful for the city of Miami that is the city under discussion. The available epidemiological data covers diseases such as botulism, pertussis, tuberculosis, mumps, HIV/AIDs, malaria, Lyme disease, rabies, syphilis, varicella, meningitis and other conditions. However, this analysis considers epidemiological data on the conditions under discussion.
The available epidemiological and surveillance data for botulism occurs in different categories depending on the mode of spread of the condition. The categories include foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism (Brown et al., 2010). There were few reports of botulism in Miami and the State of Florida. Only one case of foodborne botulism was reported in Florida between 2003 and 2013 (Kaye, 2006). On the other hand, there were eight reported cases of infant botulism reported over the same period. The rest of the cases were in the last category.
Pertussis is a reportable disease in Florida, and medical practitioners are required to inform the authorities if a patient has this disease. The prevalence of pertussis in Florida is higher than that of botulism. The number of cases reported in the year 2012 was 575 representing an incidence rate of 3/100,000 (Kaye, 2012). This figure represented an increase of 70.6%. The available epidemiological data also focuses on the different races, ages and other demographic groups. The prevalence of pertussis increased over the last five years with the disease causing the death of more than20 people over the same period in Florida.
The other condition analyzed is mumps. This disease results from an infection with mumps Virus. The disease causes the death of 10-20 people annually in Florida. In addition, this disease mainly occurs in individuals who are not native to the state or had travelled to other parts of the world such as India (Mitruka et al., 2012). The disease causes significant morbidity in affected individuals and results in the death of some of the victims. In addition, the disease is expensive to treat. However, there are available countermeasures that are effective in the control of Mumps.
Effect on Community and Plan of Action
This section discusses the effects that the three communicable diseases have on the Miami community, their identification, and the plan of action based on the Healthy People 2020 initiative. The three diseases affect the general health of the population and put the healthy individuals at risk of infection. In addition, these conditions have high mortality and morbidity rate. The diseases are expensive to treat, and the complications require ample financial resources. Conversely, the other effect that botulism, pertussis, and mumps have in the Miami population is economic. Aside from these effects, the three diseases lead to disabilities in individuals that do not get adequate management.
The identification of pertussis, mumps, and botulism in Miami takes place through a structured program. Patients suspected to have the diseases are required to report to the nearest health facility. The different signs and symptoms of this condition are reported to the healthcare providers to do tests to establish the presence of the diseases (Mitruka et al., 2012). After confirmatory history, examination and investigation, the care providers report the positive patients to the local health authorities for epidemiological recording. The patients also receive care for their diseases.
The Healthy People 2020 initiative has important guides on the identification and containment of diseases such as mumps, pertussis, and botulism. The first of these is the determination of the capacity of health institutions in Miami to detect and manage the cases of these conditions (Mitruka et al., 2012). In this objective of the HPI 2020, the facilities receive adequate equipment and personnel to assist in the detection, management and surveillance of these conditions.
The second part of the initiative is to ensure improved environmental conditions with the aim of reducing the spread of these illnesses. Health care workers have the responsibility of ensuring that the patients with communicable diseases get the best care to improve their condition and ensure that they do not develop the complications (Brown et al., 2010). Environmental improvement entails eliminating the conditions that facilitate the spread of the diseases. In addition, the government carries out immunization programs to reduce the incidence of these illnesses (Brown et al., 2010).
Social determinants are important to monitor in the prevention of the three conditions. Additionally, the three diseases may be prevented through community health programs and health education. The population needs to be prepared to manage the illness and report to health facilities early. Early detection leads to a reduction of prevalence (Brown et al., 2010). The other intervention that is necessary to reduce the prevalence of the three conditions is the improvement of living standards for the population. An improvement in these conditions contributes to the reduction of the prevalence of these conditions.
In conclusion, the Healthy People Initiative 2020 is an important policy in the prevention of diseases and their management. The three diseases that are analyzed in the paper include pertussis, mumps and botulism in Miami, Florida. The existing measures in this city are insufficient to prevent the spread of the conditions. The Healthy People Initiative 2020 provides an effective method of preventing the development of these conditions.
About Healthy People. (2015). Web.
Brown, J., Sutter, M. E., Algren, D. A., Thomas, J. D., Ragone, S., Schier, J. G., & Geller, R. J. (2010). Theme: The Role of a Poison Control Center in Identifying and Limiting an Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(1), 675-678.
Kaye, D. (2006). Botulism associated with commercial carrot juice – Georgia and Florida, September 2006. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1(12), 1-14
Mitruka, K., Felsen, C. B., Tomianovic, D., Inman, B., Street, K., Yambor, P., & Reef, S. E. (2012). Measles, Rubella, and Varicella among the Crew of a Cruise Ship Sailing From Florida, United States, 2006. Journal of Travel Medicine, 19(4), 233-237.