## What do degrees of freedom (df) mean? Canbulat et al. (2015) did not provide the df s in their study. Why is it important to know the df for a t ratio?

Degrees of freedom are the data that can be different within a certain sample. It means that in a sample of 10 people with the average height of 5 feet, nine can be of any height, but the 10th participant should be as tall as to make the average height of the sample 5 feet. Consequently, there are 9 degrees of freedom for example with height. With the knowledge of the df and a t correlation, a t-distribution table can be used to discover if the data is meaningful for a given alpha value. The Canbulat study has 174 degrees of freedom since it investigated 176 representatives, and there were two averages compared.

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## What are the means and standard deviations (SDs) for age for the Buzzy intervention and control groups? What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this an appropriate analysis technique?

In the Buzzy group, the age was estimated as 8.25 +/- 1.51 SDs. This meaning for the control group was 8.61 +/- 1.69 SDs. A t-test type of statistical analysis was applied to reveal the difference in means. A t-test was a suitable analysis technique since such tests compare the data sets for meaningfulness. The t-test is different from a z-test because the later considers proportions.

## What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

For age data, the t value is -1.498, and the p value is.136. This result proves that the difference in average age of two groups was not meaningful.

## What are the assumptions for conducting the independent samples t-test?

The assumptions are as follows: the use of ordinal or continuous scale to assess the variables; the randomness of a sample; a considerable size of a sample; variance is homogenous.

## Are the groups in this study independent or dependent?

The groups participating in the research are independent because various children were employed in the studies. Moreover, every test was independent. In case of a dependent study, every child would get both treatments.

## What is the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Faces Scale (WBFS) for the two groups? Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study?

The null hypothesis means that the results obtained with the Wong Baker Faces Scale and those self-reported are similar. The null hypothesis cannot be applied here since the the t value was -6.498, and the p was < 0.0001.

## Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study?

A Bonferroni procedure is not obligatory for this research because it does not include many hypotheses. It is usually applied to check multiple hypotheses, and there exists a possibility of Type I error accidental occurrence.

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## What variable has a result of t = − 6.135, p = 0.000? What does the result mean?

The Parent-reported index of pain perceived by the child variable has this result. It is the level of child’s anxiety as assessed by parents. For this variable, the results of Buzzy and control groups differ substantially.

## Is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t values in Table 2 were found to be statistically significant?

I consider the significance of both t values an expected discovery. Due to application of Buzzy, the children were less concentrated on the actual IV insertion procedure. Besides, it decreased their self-reported pain.

## What are potential clinical benefits for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion?

A possible clinical benefit observed by pediatric patients can be the reduction of traumatizing for children by IV insertion due to the Buzzy intervention. Often IV insertion becomes more complicated since most of the children are scared of needles. Thus, Buzzy intervention could simplify the procedure for both the specialist and the patient.

## Reference List

Canbulat, N., Ayhan, F., & Inal, S. (2015). *Effectiveness of External Cold and Vibration for Procedural Pain Relief During Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation in Pediatric Patients*. *Pain Management Nursing*, *16*(1), 33–39. Web.