Deep Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of the Disease

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Diagnosis

  • Condition is typically characterized by presence of blood clots
  • They are situated in the lower part of the body, often the legs
  • The clots lead the limb to swell noticeably
  • The clot is in a deep vein, complicating detection
  • Many of the symptoms are shared with other conditions

Differential Diagnosis

  • Chronic venous insufficiency can create similar symptoms
  • Can be differentiated through the presence of varicose veins
  • Duplex ultrasound will detect the different condition
  • Myxedema can create similar-appearing clots along blood vessels
  • Can be detected through thyroid function tests

Pathophysiology

  • Blood clots or thromboses form within deep veins
  • Veins are obstructed as a result, blood flow is impeded
  • Vascular integrity of lower limbs may be compromised
  • Tends to lead to various cardiovascular conditions
  • Complications extend up to death, especially if pulmonary embolism develops

Signs and Symptoms

  • Leg swelling, often more on the left leg than the right
  • Redness in the affected area, possibly with pain
  • Tenderness in the location around where the thrombus is located
  • Pyrexia and the associated symptoms
  • Erythema, oedema, and others, including cardiovascular condition symptoms (Baldwin, 2020)

Diagnostic Tests

  • Physical check for presence of blood clots
  • D-timer blood test, likely to be elevated
  • Duplex ultrasound to detect blood clots
  • Venography, but ultrasound is less invasive and preferable
  • MRI scan, particularly relevant for abdomen DVT

Assessment Technique

  • Begin with a physical examination, looking for clots
  • Consider patient’s history, classify their risk of having DVT
  • Conduct duplex ultrasound and a d-timer test
  • Follow up with repeated ultrasounds or venography if necessary
  • These steps should predict DVT with a high probability

Lifestyle Interventions

  • Diet adjustments to avoid interfering with medication
  • Regular movement to exercise legs
  • Avoid tight clothing that may interfere with leg blood circulation
  • Compression stockings to avoid clotting may be advisable
  • Reduction in activities that can cause bleeding while blood thinners are in use

Non-Medicinal Interventions

  • Surgery may be necessary in rare cases
  • Venous thrombectomy, the direct removal of a thrombus
  • Vena cava interruption devices may also be used
  • Rarely, their installation can result in complications
  • Venous congestion is the most significant problem (Brown et al., 2019)

Medicinal Interventions

  • Anticoagulants are typically used for the condition
  • Consist of three categories: vitamin K antagonists, thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors (Brown et al., 2019)
  • Warfarin is the primary vitamin K antagonist
  • Thrombin inhibitors can be direct or indirect
  • Fondaparinux is an example of a factor Xa inhibitor (Brown et al., 2019)

Anticoagulant Usage Notes

  • Anticoagulants complicate injections due to wounds closing slower
  • Intramuscular injections should be avoided while they are in use
  • Venepunctures should be minimized wherever possible
  • The use of small-gauge needles is advised
  • Manual pressure should be applied for 10 minutes or longer at the site (Brown et al., 2019)

Treatment Details

  • Patient should avoid blowing their nose forcefully
  • Shaving should be done with electric razors
  • Soft toothbrushes or oral swabs should be used for oral hygiene
  • Stool softeners may be administered to avoid straining
  • Fall and skin breakdown assessments are necessary

Prevention

  • Regular medical check-ups if in a risk group
  • Regular physical activity, avoid sitting without moving for extended periods
  • This recommendation includes driving cars or using other transport
  • Physical fitness, removal of excess weight
  • Minimization of harmful habits such as smoking

References

Baldwin, A. (ed.). (2020). Oxford handbook of clinical specialties (11th ed.). Oxford University Press.

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Brown, D., Edwards, H., Buckley, T., Aitken, R. L., Lewis, S. L., Bucher, L., Heitkemper, M. M., Harding, M. M., Kwong, J., & Roberts, D. (2019). Lewis’s medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (5th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences.

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NursingBird. (2022, June 9). Deep Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of the Disease. Retrieved from https://nursingbird.com/deep-vein-thrombosis-analysis-of-the-disease/

Reference

NursingBird. (2022, June 9). Deep Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of the Disease. https://nursingbird.com/deep-vein-thrombosis-analysis-of-the-disease/

Work Cited

"Deep Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of the Disease." NursingBird, 9 June 2022, nursingbird.com/deep-vein-thrombosis-analysis-of-the-disease/.

References

NursingBird. (2022) 'Deep Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of the Disease'. 9 June.

References

NursingBird. 2022. "Deep Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of the Disease." June 9, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/deep-vein-thrombosis-analysis-of-the-disease/.

1. NursingBird. "Deep Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of the Disease." June 9, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/deep-vein-thrombosis-analysis-of-the-disease/.


Bibliography


NursingBird. "Deep Vein Thrombosis: Analysis of the Disease." June 9, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/deep-vein-thrombosis-analysis-of-the-disease/.