Benner’s Novice to Expert Model

The article applies Benner’s Novice to Expert Model to how nurses in the frontline practiced during the COVID-19. The model considers nursing students as novices and advanced beginners after graduation. These levels change with time after exposure and hands-on skill practice from nursing care. A significant fact from the study is how nurses nurture their skills and healthcare understanding from the time they venture into the field to an expert who can handle complex clinical cases.

The Novice to Expert model gives a conceptual structure to guide simulation facilitators to develop and assist in learning. It defines five stages of nursing practice competence gained through exposure to clinical care. The Novice is the first level that entails no experience in the position, and one needs direct guidance from the preceptor. Advanced beginner is the second level with minimal experience in the health facility. The competent level is when the nurse can identify necessary actions but has no speed (Kubsch and Tyczkowski, 2017). Proficient in the fourth level of the model where there is enough experience to oversee all clinical situations and respond with more speed. The last stage is the expert achieved after years of experience and can quickly perform duties with zero errors.

This theory develops clinical reasoning and judgment through experience gained over time. Different individuals take varied time to adjust and perform at various opportunities. Reflecting on the limitation imposed by the COVID-19 virus as a frontline healthcare professional, anxiety and depression was the major challenge I experienced. This resulted from the ethical dilemmas surrounding health facilities and staff who cared for patients with Corona Virus (Ozdemir, 2019). Understanding the adaptation process required to care for the patients was the primary application of the theory. This helped increase nursing knowledge and improve the practices during the period.


Kubsch SM, & Tyczkowski B. (2017). Benner’s Novice to Expert Model: An application to COVID-19 nurses on the front line.

Ozdemir, N. G. (2019). The development of nurses’ individualized care perceptions and practices: Benner’s Novice to Expert model perspective. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 12(2), 1-7.

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NursingBird. (2023, May 19). Benner’s Novice to Expert Model. Retrieved from


NursingBird. (2023, May 19). Benner’s Novice to Expert Model.

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"Benner’s Novice to Expert Model." NursingBird, 19 May 2023,


NursingBird. (2023) 'Benner’s Novice to Expert Model'. 19 May.


NursingBird. 2023. "Benner’s Novice to Expert Model." May 19, 2023.

1. NursingBird. "Benner’s Novice to Expert Model." May 19, 2023.


NursingBird. "Benner’s Novice to Expert Model." May 19, 2023.