The patient is a young boy who cannot go through the recovery process without support. Therefore, the patient education program targets the parents.
Parents should help the patient avoid the triggers of asthma (smoke, dust, and smell). They should ensure the patient takes the drugs at the right time. They should ensure the patient follows the right procedure when using inhalers and nebulizers. They should know all the signs of serious attacks that may need the doctor’s attention (needs the inhaler after every 30 minutes, has blue lips, breathlessness, frightened or exhausted) (Castro & Kraft, 2008).
The Use of the Metered Dose Inhaler
The following are the steps to follow when helping the child use the, the metered dose inhaler, MDI:
Properly shake the inhaler, about three to four shakes, before giving it to the child. Shaking ensures that the drugs mix appropriately (Castro & Kraft, 2008). Remove its cap. Expel air from your mouth; do not direct the breath toward the inhaler. Removing air from the mouth creates space for the drugs and helps avoid diluting them with the air that was in the mouth (Castro & Kraft, 2008). Put the inhaler between your teeth and close the lips around the inhaler. This step helps prevent the drug, which is in a gaseous form, from escaping into the air (Castro & Kraft, 2008). Gently start pulling air into the mouth. Press the button on the gadget and continuously suck the drug until the mouth is full of breath. This step ensures that the drug goes straight into the lungs (Castro & Kraft, 2008). Remove the gadget from the mouth; hold your breath for about ten seconds before breathing out. Holding the breath gives time for all the drugs in the mouth to move to the lungs (Castro & Kraft, 2008). In case there is need for another puff, the patient should wait for thirty seconds before repeating each step of the process.
Using the Nebulizer
Asthmatic patients do not need to use nebulizers because inhalers are equally effective. However, they can use it when:
When the child has breathing problems while in hospital or ambulance. There is no one to help him use the inhaler in such moments (Grossman & Porth, 2014). The child is unable to use inhalers because of confusion or problems with their hands. The nebulizer is not mechanical. Therefore, the child can use it without necessarily using his hands (Grossman & Porth, 2014). The child has serious respiratory difficulties or is too tired with breathing. The nebulizer will help him push the drugs to the lungs because it does not need the patient’s effort (Castro & Kraft, 2008). Severely attacked by asthma, where large amounts of drugs are needed. Using the inhaler in such situations will requires making many puffs (Castro & Kraft, 2008). The child produces excess mucus. In this case, he needs fluids delivered using the nebulizer to eliminate the mucus (Grossman & Porth, 2014).
Asthma Pathological Process
Asthma attacks individuals when irritations that occur in the bronchi cause reactions due to hypersensitivity in the immune system (Grossman & Porth, 2014). Irritants get into the bronchi, causing the activation of the immune system, which causes inflammations. As a result, the bronchi swells and the muscles around it constricts, closing off the airway (Grossman & Porth, 2014). Other outcomes include wheezing, breathing problems and the production of excess mucus in the lungs.
Impact of the Interventions on the Pathological Process
Relieve Inhalers, usually, contain bronchodilators, which widen air pathways in the bronchi (Grossman & Porth, 2014). These inhalers are effective for patients that regularly experience symptoms. Patients who need inhalers about two to three times in a week to counter the symptoms should use the preventive inhaler. Inhalers use steroids, which reduce inflammations in the bronchi (Grossman & Porth, 2014). The drugs also ease the elimination of excess mucus from the body.
Castro, M., & Kraft, M. (2008). Clinical asthma. Philadelphia: Mosby / Elsevier.
Grossman, S & Porth, C.(2014). Porth’s Pathophysiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins.