Pressure ulcers are a common clinical problem due to limited movement in some patients and potentially dangerous hydration and room temperature levels. Physical pressure on an area of the skin reduces blood circulation, which leads to cell death. This problem is relevant for hospital settings, and especially for people who cannot move independently. Medical personnel do not always have time to help a patient move the body’s position and, accordingly, bedsores appear in stages. The microclimate and movement controls are a promising nursing task, as it helps avoid a decrease in blood circulation. Besides, several other techniques, such as silicone applications and nutritional optimization, can be used efficiently in conjunction with traditional models. The literature review provides an overview of current research on the effect of room and surface temperature on pressure ulcers and the need for further investigation on this manipulation.
The research questions and hypotheses of the investigated sources vary in the relevance of existing data or specific temperature control characteristics. First, the analysis examines the existence of particular climate guidelines for patients with pressure ulcers and whether management standards are available (Kottner et al., 2018). On the other hand, another source tests the innovative microclimate-controlling skin interface multilayer support system and its advantage in temperature control over conventional cotton sheets (van Leen et al., 2018). The research question, in this case, covers the feasibility of non-traditional materials in medical practice. It has also been noted that the quality of pillows and mattresses and their materials can be predictors of pressure ulcers, which remains an under-researched topic (Bhattacharya & Mishra, 2015). Similar research interest has been provided in the source where the authors tested the support surfaces and skin area’s temperature as preconditions of pressure ulcers. Another article explores the long-term financial benefits of climate control for patients and providers (Tran et al., 2016). Thus, each report assesses the effect of temperature recommendations on the pressure ulcer stage in subjects.
The sample populations in the studied articles vary by the method of analysis, namely the empirical or literary structure. Three of the five sources are reviews of existing publications and have similar research goals, namely to find the correlation between the dynamics of pressure ulcers and the corresponding surface materials and temperature conditions (Bhattacharya & Mishra, 2015; Kottner et al., 2018; Tran et al., 2016). The samples for these articles are all patients who have or may have the mentioned diagnosis due to clinical indications, and the medical professionals who care for them. Another source studies five types of mattresses using an innovative 3D model of the human buttocks, which also correlates with this audience (Zeevi et al., 2017). An empirical study was conducted with two hundred six residents of Dutch nursing homes with similar demographic and medical characteristics (van Leen et al., 2018). The possibility of further applying the information apparently correlates with the audience concerned and regulates the universality of specific models of care. Thus, despite the different samples and research objectives, the sources target a broad audience of potential patients.
The limitations are broadly similar in the reviewed articles but vary based on the objectives of the analysis. First of all, the provision of non-original information and the lack of a clear hypothesis reduces the possibility of further research (Bhattacharya & Mishra, 2015; Kottner et al., 2018). These findings can be used as benchmarks for profile analyzes, but the publications are not sufficient for investigation purposes. Besides, another source provided valuable information on climate control, but it is only applicable to Dutch hospital settings and specific products (van Leen et al., 2018). A standard limitation is also the secondary factors that can regulate the temperature, namely the thermostat’s quality or the electrical devices in the room (Zeevi et al., 2017). Besides, the review of potential alternatives to traditional care models is superficial and does not provide significant statistics for subsequent scholars (Tran et al., 2016). Further interpretation of these articles’ results depends on trends in nursing care and the industry’s financial stability. Thus, research limitations cover superficial information or clear regional orientation, becoming significant barriers to subsequent publications.
Pressure ulcers are a relevant medical problem, but they are not adequately investigated. Traditional methods of intervention, such as posture control and quality mattress material, are insufficient for today’s audience needs. Controlling the microclimate of body parts and supporting surfaces is a promising idea for nurses, as it makes it possible to identify the initial stage of pressure ulcers more efficiently. The literature review has shown that current research does not provide standardized practice for temperature recommendations or cover characteristics. However, sources pointed out that a mix of new ideas, such as climate control, nutritional considerations, silicone applications, and other innovations can be helpful for various client needs. Moreover, the combination of traditional and modern prevention methods opens up new perspectives for medical professionals, including nurse practitioners. This study indicated that temperature control and movement of body position are potentially useful but under-studied models of care.
Bhattacharya, S., & Mishra, R. (2015). Pressure ulcers: Current understanding and newer modalities of treatment. Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, 48(01), 4-16. Web.
Kottner, J., Black, J., Call, E., Gefen, A., & Santamaria, N. (2018). Microclimate: A critical review in the context of pressure ulcer prevention. Clinical Biomechanics, 59, 62-70. Web.
Tran, J., McLaughlin, J., Li, R., & Phillips, L. (2016). Prevention of pressure ulcers in the acute care setting. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 138(3S), 232S-240S. Web.
van Leen, M., Halfens, R., & Schols, J. (2018). Preventive effect of a microclimate-regulating system on pressure ulcer development. Advances in Skin & Wound Care, 31(1), 1-5. Web.
Zeevi, T., Levy, A., Brauner, N., & Gefen, A. (2017). Effects of ambient conditions on the risk of pressure injuries in bedridden patients-multi-physics modelling of microclimate. International Wound Journal, 15(3), 402-416. Web.