Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs as a result of a breakdown in the functioning of the renal due to kidney damage. Subsequently, the kidney may retain excessive quantities of harmful nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous wastes associated with renal failure. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly present an outline for nursing intervention to prevent complications in the patient with ARF with a voice thread.
Side effects of different electrolyte imbalances
The electrolyte imbalances may lead to ineffective perfusion of the renal tissues, infection, excessive fluid volume, and a potential risk for fluid volume deficient. As a result, the renal function may be compromised and eventually lead to kidney failure. For instance, imbalance in the proteinuria may increase levels of sodium and affect the urine specific gravity (Bellomo 34). On the other hand, imbalances in the hemoglobin and erythrocytes may increase the partial thromboplastin time which increases the risk of infection. As a result, the blood flow to the kidney may diminish (Andreucci 21).
A nursing intervention to minimize blood loss
It is important to know the type of ARF a patient is suffering from. It is imperative to maintain the patients on rest and increase the periods of complete rest to minimize the metabolic rate which enhances the activities in the kidney. The nurse should then make frequent observations for metabolic acidosis to be in a position to notice any complications on an hourly basis (Catto 51).
It is important to provide oral hygiene to the patient to minimize the occurrence of ulcers and irritation of the tissues as a result of excessive acidic wastes excreted through mucous membranes. Moreover, this practice should go hand in hand with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis to minimize blood loss. In addition, the nursing intervention should incorporate counseling and guidance for the patients to minimize anxiety. Excessive anxiety may increase the blood loss since the renal function will be more rapid than the kidney of the patient can handle. Enhanced activities or excessive pressure as a result of stress or anxiety may increase the retention of the harmful wastes in the kidney of the ART patient (Hunt 15).
Nursing intervention and diet
The nurse should ensure that the diet of the patient has high carbohydrate content, is relatively low on proteins, and contains an adequate number of fats since high fat and carbohydrate intake does not support the creation of energy from proteins. This ensures that any available proteins are reserved for repairing damaged tissues. Besides, it is important to reduce quantities of potassium-rich food to reduce the high level of potassium in the ART patient, which is very harmful since it may result in electrolyte imbalances (Blakeley 62).
Teaching plan for a patient with ART
Explaining each stage of treatment and intervention to the patients may greatly reduce any anxiety they are experiencing. This may also involve the assessment of the patient’s emotional status and explaining the most essential practices to minimize stress. Medical staff should advise patients on the types of exercise to do and the frequency of each one. During the teaching process, the nurse may describe the ideal dental hygiene practice and the types of gums to chew for increasing salivary flow. The last element that may be covered is lessons on the prevention of infections and a healthy lifestyle to minimize chances of ARF recurrence after treatment (Russett 15).
Andreucci, Emily. Acute Renal Failure: Pathophysiology, Prevention, and Treatment, New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. Print.
Bellomo, Rinaldo. Acute Renal Failure in the Critically Ill, New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. Print.
Blakeley, Sara. Renal Failure and Replacement Therapies, New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2011. Print.
Catto, Graeme. Chronic Renal Failure, New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. Print.
Hunt, Walter. Kidney Disease: A Guide for Living, New York, NY: JHU Press, 2011. Print.
Russett, Justyn. “A Jar of Encouragement: A Nurse’s Point of View of Depression in the Hemodialysis Setting.” American Journal of Kidney Diseases 66.5 (2015): A15- A16. Print.